Education and Professional Standing
MRCP, Royal College of Physicians (UK), 1964
MBBS, King's College and Westminister Hospital Medical School (UK), 1960
Immunology; immunopathology; immunophysiology; mucosal immunology and its alteration in a variety of disease models; the role of neuroimmune interactions in allergy and inflammation; the reciprocal communication between the nervous system and immune systems; mechanisms of action of commensal bacteria on the nervous system and behaviour and in various models of inflammation.
He has made siginificant contributions in medical research. Among these are: Mucosal immunology; neuroimmunology; mast cells, and psychoneuroimmunology.
His current projects include: functional role of mucosal mast cells; mechanisms of action of commensal bacteria in models of asthma, colitis and visceral pain; effects of commensal bacteria on cognition and behaviour; neuroimmune mechanisms.
He has published more than 500 peer-reviewed articles and other publications; authored, edited and co-edited 8 books including the standard text on mucosal immunology.